Acknowledgements

This work presents results from the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission Gaia. Gaia data are being processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC is provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multi-Lateral Agreement (MLA). The Gaia mission website is https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia. The Gaia Archive website is http://archives.esac.esa.int/gaia.

The Gaia mission and data processing have financially been supported by:

  • the Algerian Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique of Bouzareah Observatory;

  • the Austrian FWF Hertha Firnberg Programme through grants T359, P20046, and P23737;

  • the BELgian federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) through various PROgramme de Développement d’Expériences scientifiques (PRODEX) grants;

  • the Brazil-France exchange programmes FAPESP-COFECUB and CAPES-COFECUB;

  • the Chinese National Science Foundation through grant NSFC 11573054;

  • the Czech-Republic Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports through grant LG 15010;

  • the Danish Ministry of Science;

  • the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research through grant IUT40-1;

  • the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme through the European Leadership in Space Astrometry (ELSA) Marie Curie Research Training Network (MRTN-CT-2006-033481), through Marie Curie pr

  • oject PIOF-GA-2009-255267 (SAS-RRL), and through a Marie Curie Transfer-of-Knowledge (ToK) fellowship (MTKD-CT-2004-014188); the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme through grant FP7-606740 (FP7-SPACE-2013-1) for the Gaia European Network for Improved data User Services (GENIUS) and through grant 264895 for the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT-ITN) network;

  • the European Research Council (ERC) through grant 320360 and through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme through grant agreement 670519 (Mixing and Angular Momentum tranSport of massIvE stars – MAMSIE);

  • the European Science Foundation (ESF), in the framework of the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training Research Network Programme (GREAT-ESF);

  • the European Space Agency in the framework of the Gaia project;

  • the European Space Agency Plan for European Cooperating States (PECS) programme through grants for Slovenia; the Czech Space Office through ESA PECS contract 98058;

  • the Academy of Finland; the Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation;

  • the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) through action ‘Défi MASTODONS’;

  • the French Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES);

  • the French L’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) ‘investissements d’avenir’ Initiatives D’EXcellence (IDEX) programme PSL through grant ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02;

  • the Région Aquitaine;

  • the Université de Bordeaux;

  • the French Utinam Institute of the Université de Franche-Comté, supported by the Région de Franche-Comté and the Institut des Sciences de l’Univers (INSU);

  • the German Aerospace Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., DLR) through grants 50QG0501, 50QG0601, 50QG0602, 50QG0701, 50QG0901, 50QG1001, 50QG1101, 50QG140, 50QG1401, 50QG1402, and 50QG1404;

  • the Hungarian Academy of Sciences through Lendület Programme LP2014-17;

  • the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office through grants NKFIH K-115709 and PD-116175;

  • the Israel Ministry of Science and Technology through grant 3-9082;

  • the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) through grants I/037/08/0, I/058/10/0, 2014-025-R.0, and 2014-025-R.1.2015 to INAF and contracts I/008/10/0 and 2013/030/I.0 to ALTEC S.p.A.;

  • the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF);

  • the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) through grant NWO-M-614.061.414 and through a VICI grant to A. Helmi;

  • the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA);

  • the Polish National Science Centre through HARMONIA grant 2015/18/M/ST9/00544;

  • the Portugese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through grants PTDC/CTE-SPA/118692/2010, PDCTE/CTE-AST/81711/2003, and SFRH/BPD/74697/2010; the Strategic Programmes PEst-OE/AMB/UI4006/2011 for SIM, UID/FIS/00099/2013 for CENTRA, and UID/EEA/00066/2013 for UNINOVA;

  • the Slovenian Research Agency;

  • the Spanish Ministry of Economy MINECO-FEDER through grants AyA2014-55216, AyA2011-24052, ESP2013-48318-C2-R, and ESP2014-55996-C2-R and MDM-2014-0369 of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu);

  • the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB/Rymdstyrelsen);

  • the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research, and Innovation through the ESA PRODEX programme, the Mesures d’Accompagnement, and the Swiss Activités Nationales Complémentaires;

  • the Swiss National Science Foundation, including an Early Postdoc.Mobility fellowship;

  • the United Kingdom Rutherford Appleton Laboratory;

  • the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) through grants PP/C506756/1 and ST/I00047X/1; and

  • the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) through grants ST/K000578/1 and ST/N000978/1.

The Gaia project and data processing have made use of:

  • the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data (SIMBAD; Wenger et al. 2000), the ‘Aladin sky atlas’ (Bonnarel et al. 2000; Boch and Fernique 2014), and the VizieR catalogue access tool (Ochsenbein et al. 2000), all operated at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS);

  • data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) / California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF);

  • the SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS), initiated by the Space Environment and Effects Section (TEC-EES) of ESA and developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) under ESA contract through ESA’s General Support Technologies Programme (GSTP), administered by the BELgian federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO);

  • the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS), funded by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund;

  • NASA’s Astrophysics Data System (ADS).

The GBOT programme uses observations collected at (i) the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere with the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), under ESO programmes 092.B-0165, 093.B-0236, 094.B-0181, 095.B-0046, 096.B-0162, and 097.B-0304, (ii) the Liverpool Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias with financial support from the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council, and (iii) telescopes of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network.